Space Technologies - Series (3)
Today, part 3 - Space technologies classified as defence-related products
The EU Common Military List is listing military goods in 22 different categories. Most relevant for space-related technologies are:
ML4 (Bombs, torpedoes, rockets, missiles, other explosive devices and charges). Examples are rockets, missiles and components therefor, specially designed for military use.
ML10 (Aircraft, lighter-than-air vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (“UAVs”), aero-engines and aircraft equipment, related equipment, and components, specially designed or modified for military use).
ML11 (Electronic equipment, “spacecraft” and components, not specified elsewhere on the EU Common Military List). Examples are (1) satellite navigation system jamming equipment and specially designed components therefor, (2) spacecraft (and its components) specially designed or modified for military use. "Spacecraft" is defined as active and passive satellites and space probes.
ML19 (Directed Energy Weapon systems). Examples are (1) space-qualified accelerator components and (2) space-qualified foils for neutralizing negative hydrogen isotope beams, when specially designed for DEW systems.
ML20 (Cryogenic and superconductive equipment). Examples are (1) equipment specially designed or configured to be installed in space applications, capable of operating while in motion and producing or maintaining temperature below - 170 °C, (2) superconductive electrical equipment (rotation machinery or transformers).
ML21 (Software), and