Basic / fundamental / applied research: some clarifications


In the EU Regulation 428/2009, there are de-control notes (meaning derogations from license requirements) for dual-use technology that is the result of basic scientific research. In other texts, you will find references to fundamental research or applied research. Let’s try to make a little order among these wordings.


There seems to be a common understanding in the research community of the difference between the terms. The major difference seems to be the purpose of the research, that is, what the research is set to achieve.

Source: University of Texas at El Paso